Alkaline phosphatase

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) pathological increases are largely associated with hepatobiliary and bone diseases.

Reference Ranges

DGKC Deutsche Gesellschaft für Klinische Chemie
25°C30°C37°C
Children
1-12 years[U/L]< 480< 596< 727
[µkat/L]< 8.00< 9.93< 12.1
13-17 yearsfemale[U/L]< 296< 367< 448
[µkat/L]< 4.93< 6.12< 7.47
male[U/L]< 617< 767< 935
[µkat/L]< 10.3< 12.8< 15.6
Adults[U/L]< 170< 211< 258
[µkat/L]< 2.83< 3.52< 4.30
IFCC International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine
Adults
Women35 – 105 U/L0.58 – 1.75 µkat/L
Men40 – 130 U/L0.67 – 2.17 µkat/L
ChildrenFemale [U/L]Female [µkat/L]Male [U/L]Male [µkat/L]
1 – 30 days48 – 4060.8 – 6.7775 – 3161.25 – 5.27
1 month – 1 year124 – 3412.07 – 5.6882 – 3831.37 – 6.38
1 – 3 years108 – 3171.8 – 5.28104 – 3451.73 – 5.75
4 – 6 years96 – 2971.6 – 4.9593 – 3091.55 – 5.15
7 – 9 years69 – 3251.15 – 5.4286 – 3151.43 – 5.25
10 – 12 years51 – 3320.85 – 5.5342 – 3620.7 – 6.03
13 – 15 years50 – 1620.83 – 2.774 – 3901.23 – 6.50
16 – 18 years47 – 1190.78 – 1.9852 – 1710.87 – 2.85
Each laboratory should check if the reference ranges are transferable to its own patient population and determine own reference ranges if necessary. For diagnostic purposes, the results should always be assessed with the patient’s medical history, clinical examinations and other findings.

Increased in

  1. Intra-hepatic cholestasis,e.g. liver infiltrated by carcinoma, leukemia, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, amyloidosis, fibrosis (cirrhosis)
  2. Extrahepatic cholestasis, e.g. bile duct stone, neoplasma,atresia
  3. Osteoblastic disease e.g. malignancy, secondary hyperparathyroidism, Paget´s Disease
  4. Tumour
  5. Pregnancy

Decreased in

  1. Hypophosphatasemia: a relatively rare inherited disorder which is either asymptomatic or may be associated with arthritis of the weight-bearing joints
  2. Hypothyroidism
  3. Scurvy
  4. Gross anemia

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